Municipal Affairs and Environment

Water Distribution System Hydraulics

Hydraulics for Operators

  • Hydrostatics – relationship between pressure and depth (height) of water
  • Energy present in a fluid – pressure head, velocity head, elevation head
  • Hydraulic Grade Line
  • Pressure (friction) losses in a distribution system – pipes and fittings

Water Hammer

  • Theory of water hammer
  • Water hammer protection devices – surge arrestor, surge chamber

Low Pressure on Service Lines

  • Reasons for low pressure on service lines under static flow conditions
  • Reasons for low pressure on service lines under dynamic flow conditions
  • Troubleshooting low pressure on service lines


  • Pump theory – atmospheric pressure, total dynamic head, suction head, suction friction losses, discharge head, discharge friction losses
  • Pump applications in a water distribution system
  • Types of pumps and how they work – positive displacement, centrifugal pumps, turbine pumps
  • Pump components – impellers, packing, lantern rings, mechanical seals, bearings
  • Operation and maintenance of pumps – pump alignment, cavitation, net positive suction head, troubleshooting
  • Pump curves


  • Types of valves – gate, butterfly, pressure reducing, check, air release, globe, needle, ball, plug, solenoid, automatic
  • Installation and maintenance of valves

Flushing of Distribution System

  • Velocities in the distribution system
  • Results of flushing
  • Flushing precautions and safety
  • Flushing techniques – unidirectional, conventional

Certification Exam Preparation

  • Practice Questions – typical certification exam questions related to material covered during this module

Math and Metric for Water System Operators

  • Each module will include various math and metric related discussions
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