Municipal Affairs and Environment

Water Distribution Basics

Drawings, Plans and Specifications

  • Interpret and use site plans, plan and profile drawings of distribution system
  • Using “As-Builts” and “Tie-Ins”
  • Distribution System Configurations
  • Distribution System Components – watermains, valves, hydrants, storage, etc.
  • Typical Design Parameters – pipe depth, maximum velocity, required distribution pressure, hydrant spacing, valve spacing

Disinfection Requirements

  • Reasons for disinfection
  • Responsibilities of water system operators
  • Chlorination – breakpoint chlorination
  • Alternative types of disinfection – ozone, UV, chlorine dioxide, chloramines
  • Pathogens
  • Chlorine Residual Testing

Water Distribution System

  • Distribution piping and pipe materials
  • Pipe performance and C-factor
  • Pipe tables and their use
  • Pipe installation – separation, bedding
  • Disinfection of pipe
  • Thrust Blocks
  • Pipe joints
  • Freeze protection and thawing methods

Surface and Groundwater Supplies

  • Surface water supplies – conditions affecting quality
  • Surface water intake structures, intake screens
  • Hydrologic cycle
  • Groundwater supplies
  • Well construction, maintenance and record keeping


  • Basic chlorine chemistry
  • Chlorine demand and chlorine decay
  • The CT concept
  • Hypochlorination and related equipment
  • Gas chlorination and related equipment
  • Chlorine Safety

Certification Exam Preparation

  • Practice Questions – typical certification exam questions related to material covered during this module

Math and Metric for Water System Operators

  • Each module will include various math and metric related discussions
  • Practice Questions – review of typical math certification exam questions
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