Municipal Affairs and Environment

Canada-Wide Standards (CWS) for Benzene - Phase 2

Implementation Plan for Newfoundland and Labrador

Status Phase 2 endorsed by CCME in September, 2001
Numeric Target/Timeframes Further 6 kilotonne reduction in emissions (See Annex A) by end of 2010 from continuing Phase 1 initial actions.
Sector linkages and co-benefits (multi-pollutant considerations) Determine and track ancilliary emissions reductions achieved through other CWS initiatives
Brief Statement of Problem Benzene has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. It is a non-threshold toxicant - a substance for which there is considered to be some probability of harm for critical effects at any level of exposure. The main sources of benzene are:
  • wood combustion (including forest fires and residential wood combustion)
  • transportation
  • natural gas dehydrators
  • steel
  • petroleum distribution and refining
  • chemicals

The primary air quality management goal for benzene is to reduce exposure to the substance.

Brief Statement of Jurisdiction's Responsibility/Mandate Newfoundland and Labrador's responsibilities are based on the CCME endorsed CWS for Benzene Phase 1 and Phase 2. As such, Newfoundland and Labrador has committed to working to reduce benzene emissions in the petroleum refining sector and to ensure that new and expanding facilities adopt best management practices.
Key Dates in Agreement Additional 6 kilotonne reduction by 2010

First report to public September 30, 2002 (See Reporting)

Review of CWS in 2011

Reporting While jurisdictions are to report annually, the 2001 national progress report shows a 30% drop in ambient benzene levels in 16 urban areas in Canada. In fact, the Phase 2 benzene emissions reduction target, originally set for achievement by 2010, has almost been reached at this date. Newfoundland and Labrador will therefore continue to monitor progress in benzene emissions reductions in conjunction with the federal government and other provinces and territories, and evaluate the need for future annual reporting.

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Tracking and Reporting Benzene - Phase 2

Action on Existing Facilities:

Newfoundland and Labrador will continue to follow through on Phase 1 Initial Actions as appropriate.

Initial Action A: Best management practices for natural gas dehydrators in three western provinces

Newfoundland and Labrador has no commitment to this action.

Initial Actions B, C and D: Benzene in Gasoline, New Vehicle Emissions, and Gasoline and Gasoline Blend Dispensing Flow Rate Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA)

Newfoundland and Labrador has no commitment to this action.

Initial Action E: CCPA And Governments Of Canada, Ontario And Alberta Memorandum Of Understanding For Environmental Protection Through Action Under CCPA Responsible Care (February 2002)

Newfoundland and Labrador has no commitment to this action.

Initial Action F: Strategic Options Process for the Steel Manufacturing Sector

Newfoundland and Labrador has no commitment to this action.

Initial Action G: Environmental Management Agreement (EMA) with Dofasco Inc.

Newfoundland and Labrador has no commitment to this action.

Initial Action H: Environmental Management Agreement (EMA) with Algoma Steel Inc.

Newfoundland and Labrador has no commitment to this action.

Initial Action I: CCME Environmental Code of Practice for Measurement and Control of Fugitive VOC Emissions from Equipment Leaks

Newfoundland and Labrador will strive to continue to implement the Code of Practice at new and existing facilities.

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Action on New and Expanding Facilities

Newfoundland and Labrador will promote and apply best available pollution prevention and control technologies and best management practices for new and expanding facilities. This will be implemented through the environmental assessment and regulatory processes.

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Action on Additional Reductions:

Newfoundland and Labrador will collaborate with other jurisdictions to track sector-specific benzene emissions reductions realized from control initiatives under the PM & Ozone and Dioxins & Furans Canada-wide Standards. An attempt will be made to track these reductions through the PM & Ozone and Dioxins & Furans CWSs.

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Action on Ambient Monitoring and Reporting:

Newfoundland and Labrador will monitor ambient benzene levels annually through the National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) Network, in conjunction with emission data from the National Pollutant Release Inventory reports. Based on this information, the need for and scope of reporting will be determined.

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Annex A

Table 2 is from Part 2 of the Companion Document to the CWS for Benzene, Phase 2. It provides estimates of further net benzene emissions reductions of 6.0 kilotonnes from year 2000 to year 2010 (emissions from petroleum distribution in the year 2010 are uncertain), achieved from continuing Phase 1 initiatives. This amounts to approximately 10-11% further reductions from 1995 levels.

Table 2. Estimated Emissions in Kilotonnes Adapted from Benzene Emissions Inventory for Canada (1990-2010).

1995 2000 2010 2010 -
Transportation 31 22 15 -7
Natural Gas Dehydrators 8.7 4 3.6 -0.4
Steel 1.2 0.4 0.1 -0.3
Petroleum Distribution 0.5 0.5
Petroleum Refining 0.4 0.2 0.2 0
Chemicals 0.4 0.1 0.1 0
Residential Wood 11 11 12 1
Miscellaneous Combustion 4.7 4.8 5.5 0.7
Prescribed Burning 0.5 0.4 0.4 0
Forest Fires 58 27 27 0
Total (all) 116.4 70.4 63.9 -6.0
Total (no forest fires) 58.4 43.4 36.9 -6.0

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